What the snapshot and maps show
The snapshot shows the main interests in major TV and radio networks and associated newspapers.
The maps show where these media operations are located.
The snapshot shows the major media players. It’s not meant to be a full account of media interests in Australia.
Smaller media networks are not included, as it would make the graphic too complex.
We’ve not shown shareholdings under 5%. The snapshot only shows who the substantial shareholders are.
Fund managers, who hold shares on behalf of others and do not exercise control over them are not included.
Types of media
The snapshot shows the major commercial TV and radio networks and associated newspapers. The Broadcasting Services Act 1992 (BSA) defines these.
The major media operations are regulated by the media control and diversity rules in the BSA. They’re often the focus of public discussion about media interests in Australia.
Some major papers such as The Australian, The Australian Financial Review and The Sunday Telegraph are not included on the snapshot as they are not considered ‘associated newspapers’ under the BSA.
Find out more about the associated newspaper register.
We only show primary services on our maps. These are generally the digital version of an original analog channel. For example, Seven, Nine and Ten. Read more about primary services.
Controllers and shareholders
The maps show the licences and newspapers a person controls, and where they are a shareholder only.
The term 'controller' has a special meaning under the BSA. A controller is a person who holds company interests of over 15% in a media operation, or someone who can exercise control over certain matters.
A ‘shareholder only’ means they aren't a controller and they have a shareholding of 5 to 15%.
Find out more about the media control rules.
Ownership and shareholding limits
There is no limit to how many media operations one person can invest in. There are only restrictions about what media operations they control.
The snapshot and maps show if a person is a controller of a licence or newspaper, or a shareholder.
Read more about the media control rules.
We have not included joint ventures in the snapshot because it’s too complex to include them in the image. But we have included joint ventures on the maps. They’re shown in the table footnotes.
The snapshot does not include all companies between the individual or company and the media interest. This is because of the complexity of detailing the chain of companies involved, and because the snapshot is only intended to provide a simple overview.
The BSA does not restrict foreign control of commercial broadcasting licences. Find out more about the media control rules.
Updates to the snapshot and maps
We update the snapshot and maps when there’s a significant change in the interests, licences or publications a person holds. We will show the date we last updated the snapshots and maps on the bottom-right corner of the snapshot.
View recent updates to the snapshot.